XRM2008

10:38 - Salome: Fluorescence microscopy

  • X-ray microscopy @ ESRF
  • technical development
    • different beamlines
  • GUI for control of microscope > ROI can be drawn in, direct conversion of coordinates
  • multimodal nano-imaging set-up
    • prototype setup, operated with pink beam
    • multilevel-detectors
  • fluorescence tomography
    • sinograms from fluorescence!
    • algorithmic solutions are preferred over mechanical solutions
    • different materials can be extracted
    • fluorescence signal and diffraction signal are obtained @ same time, crystalline phases can be reconstructed (mostly shown an overview with lots of technical diagrams)

11:11 - Kaulich: TwinMic at Elettra

  • spectromicroscopy
    • spectroscopy of human cells
    • 80 * 80 \mu\meter\squared image width
    • simultaneously acquire signals from different elements! (spectroscopy, rather technical)

11:36 - Holzner: Fluorescence & phase contrast microscopy

  • mass per area can be known, but phase contrast is needed to obtain full information of biological probes
  • difference of opposing detector halves (segmented detector is used) > already obtain information from probe
    • correlation of soft tissue with elemental content (with directional dependence)
  • phase image increases resolution
  • obtain directly thickness map of sample
    • determine elemental concentration (interesting talk about DPC nicely made with \latex, even with an embedded movie, applications look really promising > talk with sam about this presentation)

11:57 - Bergmann: Archimedes manuscript

  • XRF for document recovery of scientifically very valuable script
  • nothing (original) has survived of archimedes writings > recopying it on "new data formats"
  • all we know about archimedes comes from 3 documents (codex a, b and c)
  • geometrical discovery by physical thought-experiment
  • codex has been imaged after it has been bought by "donor"
  • archimedes writings have been overwritten by prayer-book, so recovery was "scientifically relevant"
  • archeology with highly technical methods (spectroscopy)
  • 106-107 px in 1-10 hours
  • imaging of soft tissue is the ultimate goal, fossils can be done now
  • data
  • more info
  • publication in physics world, 2007

14:01 - Otero: Dynamic STM

  • STM > atomic resolution of sample surface is easy, morphology can be also extracted
  • molecule movement observed (rotated molecules move, unrotated stay put) > diffusion coefficient depends on the orientation of the molecule regarding the surface
  • hybrid solar cells using dye molecules
    • "basically convert power out of vegetables" > hard to capture bio-molecules on surfaces
    • knowledge about molecule (achieved through STM) helps with design of it and makes available to cover surfaces with nearly everything you want to...

14:50 - Saito: SR-STM

  • optimization of SR-STM @ beamline, mechanical tips, etc.

15:21 - Ono: Nanosheets

  • oxide nanosheets, layered compound which is delaminated in single sheets (~1nm thick)
  • stacked nanosheets can be achieved > Tailoring the properties
  • tiny amount of sheet materials still gets us good spectra

worked for akira


10:49 - Vogel: stretched proteins

  • protein structure > obtain information through fluoroscopy
  • confocal microscopy
  • protein unfolding occurs in cell culture
  • protein droplets > pull out fibers and deposit those on stretchable substrates
  • strained proteins can become physiologically relevant/significant
    • bacteria adhesion (E. colic)
    • bacterial adhesion is enhanced by shear flow > high flow gives high adhesion
    • resistency-control would become feasible
    • could be used as nanoglue, since bond gets stronger as it's pulled ono

11:22 - Sasaki: Functional membrane proteins

  • dynamical study of proteins
  • single molecular detection system
  • diffracted x-ray tracking (DXT)
  • proteins can be imaged with the use of "x-ray radiation pressure"
  • making artificial nano-crystal
    • commercially available crystals are often not enough perfectly crystallised
    • 3D and 1D nano-crystals (1D is enough for Sasaki's applications)
    • pH enables them to alter the state of the protein which can then be observed with DXT

11:48 - Vogt: endogenous metals in cells

  • metals are fundamental components of biological systems
    • linked to diseases, used in therapeutics and diagnostics
  • is XRF the correct tool for the job?
    • it is at least better if you compare an analytical EM and hard x-ray microscope

12:17 - Lee: Hard x-ray phase contrast microscopy

  • samples are in \micro\meter scale
  • phase-contrast makes staining unnecessary > easy imaging of biological samples (be it either optical or x-ray microscopy)
  • sample preparation (wet/dry) still destroyed the sample through surface tension (> shear forces)
  • micro air bubbles can be shown
  • velocity profile with a resolution of several \micro\seconds

14:05 - Hertz: Lab x-ray micro imaging

  • compact water-window microscopy
  • relatively weak source > high efficiency zoneplates
  • functional imaging with size-selective coll. Au identification (with wavelet filtering)
  • no real progression on compact sources
    • used to be rotating anode > ~100 W/mm\squared
    • new: liquid jet with much higher output energy > higher speed of the anode (compared to the rotating anode) and in plus it's a regenerative target, since the anode can be damaged.
      • not only liquid metal anodes, but also used methanol (which performed much better than expected) > ~1MW/mm\squared
      • fluid dynamics start to play a role for the liquid anode
    • e-beam and reliability is improved > spin-off
  • 3 \nano\meter lines can be distinguished
  • tumor detection should be feasible
  • lab x-ray microscopy approaches synchrotron quality for soft x-rays

14:39 - Benk: X-rays from discharge plasma

  • lab source for XRM > laser produced plasma and discharge plasma used as a source
  • driving force was lithography application
  • hollow cathode used to pinch the plasma to reach the critical conditions for emission

15:03 - Sandberg: Table-top diffractive imaging

  • diffractive lens-less imaging
  • highly coherent source > laser-like beam with gaussian profile
  • 72 nm resolution with 47 nm wavelength source > possible because of big NA
  • curvature correction of diffraction pattern increases resolution > mathematically match diffraction pattern on "curved" CCD
  • holography/phase retrieval hybrid method increases resolution

08:30 - Hwa Shik Youn: Bio-fibers & hard X-ray microscopy

  • microscope optics influences image contrast

09:03 - Nishino: Nanostructure analysis by coherent x-ray diffraction

  • diffraction microscopy for biological samples
    • no need of crystallization
    • no need of thin-sectioning
    • no need of staining
  • study chromosome through diffraction imaging
    • unstained chromosomes can be imaged
  • 2D to 3D > different incident angles of diffraction are measured
    • 3D fourier transformation
    • showed consistent data with 2D reconstruction
    • first observation of cellular organelle in 3D obtained with hard x-rays with a spatial resolution of 120 nm!
    • but: they are working close to the feature-destroying dose line!
  • method can also be used in material science

09:29 - Larabell: Quantitative bio imaging

  • cryo-stage at end-station with cryo optical microscope and cryo x-ray microscope
  • histogram segmentation of organelles > colorcoding parts of histogram
  • variance weighted mean filtering
  • automatic segmentation > ask/look at publications
  • zone plates are used in the beamline (showed extremely nice movie of whole process! (transmission, FBP, segmentation, visualization, etc!))

10:32 - Hell: STED & 4Pi microscopy

  • breaking abbes barrier
  • increase the resolution of the imaging method simply through physical methods, no assumptions on material are made.
  • higher resolution than with confocal microscope
  • focal spot is so small, that focal-scanning inside the cell is possible > scanning mitochondria with resolution below 50 nm.
  • if switching states are recorded, we can go below the diffraction limit, effectively passing abbe's equation

11:27 - Feser: Commercial X-ray microscopy

  • commercial applications of different xradia products
  • automatic tomography > passive measurement system to record run-off (poster p2_030)

12:06 - Vila Comamala: X-ray diffractive optics

  • beam-shaping condenser lens, plate parameters permit the shaping of a square spot
  • spatial resolution limit in x-ray microscopy
    • resolution limit is from outermost zone plate zone
  • multi keV range zone plates are possible and are in use @ PSI

14:00 - Heim: Full field microscopy

  • automated tomography @ ~400 proj/30min
  • volume zone plates should enable sub 10 nm resolution
  • cryo-tomography > aligned dateset
  • evtl. interessant für Dimitri, since the also use some kind of tilt-series, but kinda simpler and with bigger sample sizes

14:38 - Aoki: Zernike microscopy

  • basically just showed images that were obtained with phase contrast methods

15:08- Sakdinawat: Specialized diffractive optics

  • DIC magnetic phase contrast
  • spiral zone plates
  • cubic zone plates (square deformation of the zone pattern)
  • specialized zoneplates can significantly extend the depth of field

16:03 - Stoll: Magnetic vortex dynamics

16:33 - Fischer: Magn. dynamics with TXM

17:02 - Eimüller: Magnetic TXM


08:50 - Cloetens: Hard X-ray Nanotomography

  • scanning time is around 3h, completely limited by detector
  • combination of projection and scanning x-ray microscopy
  • detection on platinum nanoparticle with a diameter of 6 nm
  • working on thin slices, so no real tomography, but still chemical imaging on the organelle level
  • zoom tomography > sample is much greater than FOV
  • setup to scan laminar structures > sample rotates off the surface normal axis
  • thermal stability of the system is crucial

09:06 - Ludwig: Diffraction contrast tomography

  • analysis of structural material response on external stimuli
  • differential aperture > sub-micrometer spatial resolution
  • analysis
    • background removal
    • pair matching of projections of 180° pairs
    • indexing
    • back-projection is then possible and then the full sample can be reconstructed (sample has 0.6mm in diameter)
  • forward simulation for proof of image acquisition
  • strain in sample can be measured and extracted

09:35 - Brennan: Nano-tomography of a comet

  • analysis of comet to determine the original composition of the universe
  • collect comet dust with aerogel
  • imaging with xradia xrm with 40nm resolution @ 5-14keV
  • imaging of the sample without destroying it, nanotomography
  • up to now not using diffraction but still possible to study the chemical composition of the sample

10:32 - Suzuki: Imaging, holography & tomography

  • holography with a combination of zoneplate objective and prism interferometer
  • phase-contrast ct by imaging holography

11:03 - Hitchcock: STXM tomography

  • combining imaging and spectroscopy
  • quantitative chemical maps from differential image from two different energies
  • radiation dose is something you have to think about > wet environment > sample moved > cryo-stage is needed

11:36 - Ade: STXM - from science to applications

  • applications towards the more efficient photovoltaic materials
  • fabrication of organic solar cells