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conferences:xrm2008 [2013/07/04 08:45] (current)
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 +<​markdown>​
 +# [XRM2008](http://​xrm2008.web.psi.ch)
 +##  21. Juli 2008
 +### 10:38 - Salome: Fluorescence microscopy
 +* X-ray microscopy @ ESRF
 +* technical development
 + * different beamlines
 +* GUI for control of microscope > ROI can be drawn in, direct conversion of coordinates
 +* multimodal nano-imaging set-up
 + * prototype setup, operated with pink beam
 + * multilevel-detectors
 +* fluorescence tomography
 + * sinograms from fluorescence!
 + * algorithmic solutions are preferred over mechanical solutions
 + * different materials can be extracted
 + * fluorescence signal and diffraction signal are obtained @ same time, crystalline phases can be reconstructed
 +(mostly shown an overview with lots of technical diagrams)
 +
 +### 11:11 - Kaulich: TwinMic at Elettra
 +* spectromicroscopy
 + * spectroscopy of human cells
 + * 80 * 80 \mu\meter\squared image width
 + * simultaneously acquire signals from different elements!
 +(spectroscopy,​ rather technical)
  
 +### 11:36 - Holzner: Fluorescence & phase contrast microscopy
 +* mass per area can be known, but phase contrast is needed to obtain full information of biological probes
 +* difference of opposing detector halves (segmented detector is used) > already obtain information from probe
 + * correlation of soft tissue with elemental content (with directional dependence)
 +* phase image increases resolution
 +* obtain directly thickness map of sample
 + * determine elemental concentration
 +(interesting talk about DPC nicely made with \latex, even with an embedded movie, applications look really promising > talk with sam about this presentation)
 +
 +### 11:57 - Bergmann: Archimedes manuscript
 +* XRF for document recovery of scientifically very valuable script
 +* nothing (original) has survived of archimedes writings > recopying it on "new data formats"​
 +* all we know about archimedes comes from 3 documents (codex a, b and c)
 +* geometrical discovery by physical thought-experiment
 +* codex has been imaged after it has been bought by "​donor"​
 +* archimedes writings have been overwritten by prayer-book,​ so recovery was "​scientifically relevant"​
 +* archeology with highly technical methods (spectroscopy)
 +* 10`6-10`7 px in 1-10 hours
 +* imaging of soft tissue is the ultimate goal, fossils can be done now
 +* [data](http://​www.archimedespalimpsest.net)
 +* [more info](http://​www.archimedespalimpsest.org)
 +* publication in physics world, 2007
 +
 +### 14:01 - Otero: Dynamic STM
 +* STM > atomic resolution of sample surface is easy, morphology can be also extracted
 +* molecule movement observed (rotated molecules move, unrotated stay put) > diffusion coefficient depends on the orientation of the molecule regarding the surface
 +* hybrid solar cells using dye molecules
 + * "​basically convert power out of vegetables"​ > hard to capture bio-molecules on surfaces
 + * knowledge about molecule (achieved through STM) helps with design of it and makes available to cover surfaces with nearly everything you want to...
 +
 +### 14:50 - Saito: SR-STM
 +* optimization of SR-STM @ beamline, mechanical tips, etc. 
 +
 +### 15:21 - Ono: Nanosheets
 +* oxide nanosheets, layered compound which is delaminated in single sheets (~1nm thick)
 +* stacked nanosheets can be achieved > Tailoring the properties
 +* tiny amount of sheet materials still gets us good spectra
 +
 +---
 +## 22. Juli 2008
 +worked for akira
 +
 +---
 +## 23. Juli 2008
 +### 10:49 - Vogel: stretched proteins
 +* protein structure > obtain information through fluoroscopy
 +* confocal microscopy
 +* protein unfolding occurs in cell culture
 +* protein droplets > pull out fibers and deposit those on stretchable substrates
 +* strained proteins can become physiologically relevant/​significant
 + * bacteria adhesion (E. colic)
 + * bacterial adhesion is enhanced by shear flow > high flow gives high adhesion
 + * resistency-control would become feasible
 + * could be used as nanoglue, since bond gets stronger as it's pulled ono
 +
 +### 11:22 - Sasaki: Functional membrane proteins
 +* dynamical study of proteins
 +* single molecular detection system
 +* diffracted x-ray tracking (DXT)
 +* proteins can be imaged with the use of "x-ray radiation pressure"​
 +* making artificial nano-crystal
 + * commercially available crystals are often not enough perfectly crystallised
 + * 3D and 1D nano-crystals (1D is enough for Sasaki'​s applications)
 + * pH enables them to alter the state of the protein which can then be observed with DXT
 +
 +### 11:48 - Vogt: endogenous metals in cells
 +* metals are fundamental components of biological systems
 + * linked to diseases, used in therapeutics and diagnostics
 +* is XRF the correct tool for the job?
 + * it is at least better if you compare an analytical EM and hard x-ray microscope
 +
 +### 12:17 - Lee: Hard x-ray phase contrast microscopy ​
 +* samples are in \micro\meter scale
 +* phase-contrast makes staining unnecessary > easy imaging of biological samples (be it either optical or x-ray microscopy)
 +* sample preparation (wet/dry) still destroyed the sample through surface tension (> shear forces)
 +* micro air bubbles can be shown
 +* velocity profile with a resolution of several \micro\seconds
 +
 +### 14:05 - Hertz: Lab x-ray micro imaging
 +* compact water-window microscopy
 +* relatively weak source > high efficiency zoneplates
 +* functional imaging with size-selective coll. Au identification (with wavelet filtering)
 +* no real progression on compact sources
 + * used to be rotating anode > ~100 W/​mm\squared
 + * new: liquid jet with much higher output energy > higher speed of the anode (compared to the rotating anode) and in plus it's a regenerative target, since the anode can be damaged.
 + * not only liquid metal anodes, but also used methanol (which performed much better than expected) > ~1MW/​mm\squared
 + * fluid dynamics start to play a role for the liquid anode
 + * e-beam and reliability is improved > spin-off
 +* 3 \nano\meter lines can be distinguished
 +* tumor detection should be feasible
 +* lab x-ray microscopy approaches synchrotron quality for soft x-rays
 +
 +### 14:39 - Benk: X-rays from discharge plasma
 +* lab source for XRM > laser produced plasma and discharge plasma used as a source
 +* driving force was lithography application
 +* hollow cathode used to pinch the plasma to reach the critical conditions for emission
 +
 +### 15:03 - Sandberg: Table-top diffractive imaging
 +* diffractive lens-less imaging
 +* highly coherent source > laser-like beam with gaussian profile
 +* 72 nm resolution with 47 nm wavelength source > possible because of big NA
 +* curvature correction of diffraction pattern increases resolution > mathematically match diffraction pattern on "​curved"​ CCD
 +* holography/​phase retrieval hybrid method increases resolution
 +
 +---
 +## 24. Juli 2008
 +### 08:30 - Hwa Shik Youn: Bio-fibers & hard X-ray microscopy
 +* microscope optics influences image contrast
 +
 +### 09:03 - Nishino: Nanostructure analysis by coherent x-ray diffraction
 +* diffraction microscopy for biological samples
 + * no need of crystallization
 + * no need of thin-sectioning
 + * no need of staining
 +* study chromosome through diffraction imaging
 + * unstained chromosomes can be imaged
 +* 2D to 3D > different incident angles of diffraction are measured
 + * 3D fourier transformation
 + * showed consistent data with 2D reconstruction
 + * first observation of cellular organelle in 3D obtained with hard x-rays with a spatial resolution of 120 nm!
 + * but: they are working close to the feature-destroying dose line!
 +* method can also be used in material science
 +
 +### 09:29 - Larabell: Quantitative bio imaging
 +* cryo-stage at end-station with cryo optical microscope and cryo x-ray microscope
 +* histogram segmentation of organelles > colorcoding parts of histogram
 +* **variance weighted mean filtering**
 +* automatic segmentation > **ask/look at publications**
 +* zone plates are used in the beamline
 +(showed extremely nice movie of whole process! (transmission,​ FBP, segmentation,​ visualization,​ etc!))
 +
 +### 10:32 - Hell: STED & 4Pi microscopy
 +* breaking abbes barrier
 +* increase the resolution of the imaging method simply through physical methods, no assumptions on material are made.
 +* higher resolution than with confocal microscope
 +* focal spot is so small, that focal-scanning inside the cell is possible > scanning mitochondria with resolution below 50 nm.
 +* if switching states are recorded, we can go below the diffraction limit, effectively passing abbe's equation
 +
 +### 11:27 - Feser: Commercial X-ray microscopy
 +* commercial applications of different xradia products
 +* automatic tomography > passive measurement system to record run-off (poster p2_030)
 +
 +### 12:06 - Vila Comamala: X-ray diffractive optics
 +* beam-shaping condenser lens, plate parameters permit the shaping of a square spot
 +* spatial resolution limit in x-ray microscopy
 + * resolution limit is from outermost zone plate zone
 +* multi keV range zone plates are possible and are in use @ PSI
 +
 +### 14:00 - Heim: Full field microscopy
 +* automated tomography @ ~400 proj/30min
 +* volume zone plates should enable sub 10 nm resolution
 +* cryo-tomography > aligned dateset
 +* **evtl. interessant für Dimitri, since the also use some kind of tilt-series**,​ but kinda simpler and with bigger sample sizes
 +
 +### 14:38 - Aoki: Zernike microscopy
 +* basically just showed images that were obtained with phase contrast methods
 +
 +### 15:08- Sakdinawat: Specialized diffractive optics
 +* DIC magnetic phase contrast
 +* spiral zone plates
 +* cubic zone plates (square deformation of the zone pattern)
 +* specialized zoneplates can significantly extend the depth of field
 +
 +### 16:03 - Stoll: Magnetic vortex dynamics
 +### 16:33 - Fischer: Magn. dynamics with TXM
 +### 17:02 - Eimüller: Magnetic TXM
 +
 +---
 +## 25. Juli 2008
 +### 08:50 - Cloetens: Hard X-ray Nanotomography
 +* scanning time is around 3h, completely limited by detector
 +* combination of projection and scanning x-ray microscopy
 +* detection on platinum nanoparticle with a diameter of 6 nm
 +* working on thin slices, so no real tomography, but still chemical imaging on the organelle level
 +* zoom tomography > sample is much greater than FOV
 +* setup to scan laminar structures > sample rotates off the surface normal axis
 +* thermal stability of the system is crucial
 +
 +### 09:06 - Ludwig: Diffraction contrast tomography
 +* analysis of structural material response on external stimuli
 +* differential aperture > sub-micrometer spatial resolution
 +* analysis
 + * background removal
 + * pair matching of projections of 180° pairs
 + * indexing
 + * back-projection is then possible and then the full sample can be reconstructed (sample has 0.6mm in diameter)
 +* forward simulation for proof of image acquisition
 +* strain in sample can be measured and extracted
 +
 +### 09:35 - Brennan: Nano-tomography of a comet
 +* analysis of comet to determine the original composition of the universe
 +* collect comet dust with aerogel
 +* imaging with xradia xrm with 40nm resolution @ 5-14keV
 +* imaging of the sample without destroying it, nanotomography
 +* up to now not using diffraction but still possible to study the chemical composition of the sample
 +
 +### 10:32 - Suzuki: Imaging, holography & tomography
 +* holography with a combination of zoneplate objective and prism interferometer
 +* phase-contrast ct by imaging holography
 +
 +### 11:03 - Hitchcock: STXM tomography
 +* combining imaging and spectroscopy
 +* quantitative chemical maps from differential image from two different energies
 +* radiation dose is something you have to think about > wet environment > sample moved > cryo-stage is needed
 +
 +### 11:36 - Ade: STXM - from science to applications
 +* applications towards the more efficient photovoltaic materials
 +* fabrication of organic solar cells
 +</​markdown>​