# Differences

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 — conferences:xrm2008 [2013/07/04 08:45] (current) Line 1: Line 1: + <​markdown>​ + # [XRM2008](http://​xrm2008.web.psi.ch) + ##  21. Juli 2008 + ### 10:38 - Salome: Fluorescence microscopy + * X-ray microscopy @ ESRF + * technical development + * different beamlines + * GUI for control of microscope > ROI can be drawn in, direct conversion of coordinates + * multimodal nano-imaging set-up + * prototype setup, operated with pink beam + * multilevel-detectors + * fluorescence tomography + * sinograms from fluorescence! + * algorithmic solutions are preferred over mechanical solutions + * different materials can be extracted + * fluorescence signal and diffraction signal are obtained @ same time, crystalline phases can be reconstructed + (mostly shown an overview with lots of technical diagrams) + + ### 11:11 - Kaulich: TwinMic at Elettra + * spectromicroscopy + * spectroscopy of human cells + * 80 * 80 \mu\meter\squared image width + * simultaneously acquire signals from different elements! + (spectroscopy,​ rather technical) + ### 11:36 - Holzner: Fluorescence & phase contrast microscopy + * mass per area can be known, but phase contrast is needed to obtain full information of biological probes + * difference of opposing detector halves (segmented detector is used) > already obtain information from probe + * correlation of soft tissue with elemental content (with directional dependence) + * phase image increases resolution + * obtain directly thickness map of sample + * determine elemental concentration + (interesting talk about DPC nicely made with \latex, even with an embedded movie, applications look really promising > talk with sam about this presentation) + + ### 11:57 - Bergmann: Archimedes manuscript + * XRF for document recovery of scientifically very valuable script + * nothing (original) has survived of archimedes writings > recopying it on "new data formats"​ + * all we know about archimedes comes from 3 documents (codex a, b and c) + * geometrical discovery by physical thought-experiment + * codex has been imaged after it has been bought by "​donor"​ + * archimedes writings have been overwritten by prayer-book,​ so recovery was "​scientifically relevant"​ + * archeology with highly technical methods (spectroscopy) + * 106-107 px in 1-10 hours + * imaging of soft tissue is the ultimate goal, fossils can be done now + * [data](http://​www.archimedespalimpsest.net) + * [more info](http://​www.archimedespalimpsest.org) + * publication in physics world, 2007 + + ### 14:01 - Otero: Dynamic STM + * STM > atomic resolution of sample surface is easy, morphology can be also extracted + * molecule movement observed (rotated molecules move, unrotated stay put) > diffusion coefficient depends on the orientation of the molecule regarding the surface + * hybrid solar cells using dye molecules + * "​basically convert power out of vegetables"​ > hard to capture bio-molecules on surfaces + * knowledge about molecule (achieved through STM) helps with design of it and makes available to cover surfaces with nearly everything you want to... + + ### 14:50 - Saito: SR-STM + * optimization of SR-STM @ beamline, mechanical tips, etc. + + ### 15:21 - Ono: Nanosheets + * oxide nanosheets, layered compound which is delaminated in single sheets (~1nm thick) + * stacked nanosheets can be achieved > Tailoring the properties + * tiny amount of sheet materials still gets us good spectra + + --- + ## 22. Juli 2008 + worked for akira + + --- + ## 23. Juli 2008 + ### 10:49 - Vogel: stretched proteins + * protein structure > obtain information through fluoroscopy + * confocal microscopy + * protein unfolding occurs in cell culture + * protein droplets > pull out fibers and deposit those on stretchable substrates + * strained proteins can become physiologically relevant/​significant + * bacteria adhesion (E. colic) + * bacterial adhesion is enhanced by shear flow > high flow gives high adhesion + * resistency-control would become feasible + * could be used as nanoglue, since bond gets stronger as it's pulled ono + + ### 11:22 - Sasaki: Functional membrane proteins + * dynamical study of proteins + * single molecular detection system + * diffracted x-ray tracking (DXT) + * proteins can be imaged with the use of "x-ray radiation pressure"​ + * making artificial nano-crystal + * commercially available crystals are often not enough perfectly crystallised + * 3D and 1D nano-crystals (1D is enough for Sasaki'​s applications) + * pH enables them to alter the state of the protein which can then be observed with DXT + + ### 11:48 - Vogt: endogenous metals in cells + * metals are fundamental components of biological systems + * linked to diseases, used in therapeutics and diagnostics + * is XRF the correct tool for the job? + * it is at least better if you compare an analytical EM and hard x-ray microscope + + ### 12:17 - Lee: Hard x-ray phase contrast microscopy ​ + * samples are in \micro\meter scale + * phase-contrast makes staining unnecessary > easy imaging of biological samples (be it either optical or x-ray microscopy) + * sample preparation (wet/dry) still destroyed the sample through surface tension (> shear forces) + * micro air bubbles can be shown + * velocity profile with a resolution of several \micro\seconds + + ### 14:05 - Hertz: Lab x-ray micro imaging + * compact water-window microscopy + * relatively weak source > high efficiency zoneplates + * functional imaging with size-selective coll. Au identification (with wavelet filtering) + * no real progression on compact sources + * used to be rotating anode > ~100 W/​mm\squared + * new: liquid jet with much higher output energy > higher speed of the anode (compared to the rotating anode) and in plus it's a regenerative target, since the anode can be damaged. + * not only liquid metal anodes, but also used methanol (which performed much better than expected) > ~1MW/​mm\squared + * fluid dynamics start to play a role for the liquid anode + * e-beam and reliability is improved > spin-off + * 3 \nano\meter lines can be distinguished + * tumor detection should be feasible + * lab x-ray microscopy approaches synchrotron quality for soft x-rays + + ### 14:39 - Benk: X-rays from discharge plasma + * lab source for XRM > laser produced plasma and discharge plasma used as a source + * driving force was lithography application + * hollow cathode used to pinch the plasma to reach the critical conditions for emission + + ### 15:03 - Sandberg: Table-top diffractive imaging + * diffractive lens-less imaging + * highly coherent source > laser-like beam with gaussian profile + * 72 nm resolution with 47 nm wavelength source > possible because of big NA + * curvature correction of diffraction pattern increases resolution > mathematically match diffraction pattern on "​curved"​ CCD + * holography/​phase retrieval hybrid method increases resolution + + --- + ## 24. Juli 2008 + ### 08:30 - Hwa Shik Youn: Bio-fibers & hard X-ray microscopy + * microscope optics influences image contrast + + ### 09:03 - Nishino: Nanostructure analysis by coherent x-ray diffraction + * diffraction microscopy for biological samples + * no need of crystallization + * no need of thin-sectioning + * no need of staining + * study chromosome through diffraction imaging + * unstained chromosomes can be imaged + * 2D to 3D > different incident angles of diffraction are measured + * 3D fourier transformation + * showed consistent data with 2D reconstruction + * first observation of cellular organelle in 3D obtained with hard x-rays with a spatial resolution of 120 nm! + * but: they are working close to the feature-destroying dose line! + * method can also be used in material science + + ### 09:29 - Larabell: Quantitative bio imaging + * cryo-stage at end-station with cryo optical microscope and cryo x-ray microscope + * histogram segmentation of organelles > colorcoding parts of histogram + * **variance weighted mean filtering** + * automatic segmentation > **ask/look at publications** + * zone plates are used in the beamline + (showed extremely nice movie of whole process! (transmission,​ FBP, segmentation,​ visualization,​ etc!)) + + ### 10:32 - Hell: STED & 4Pi microscopy + * breaking abbes barrier + * increase the resolution of the imaging method simply through physical methods, no assumptions on material are made. + * higher resolution than with confocal microscope + * focal spot is so small, that focal-scanning inside the cell is possible > scanning mitochondria with resolution below 50 nm. + * if switching states are recorded, we can go below the diffraction limit, effectively passing abbe's equation + + ### 11:27 - Feser: Commercial X-ray microscopy + * commercial applications of different xradia products + * automatic tomography > passive measurement system to record run-off (poster p2_030) + + ### 12:06 - Vila Comamala: X-ray diffractive optics + * beam-shaping condenser lens, plate parameters permit the shaping of a square spot + * spatial resolution limit in x-ray microscopy + * resolution limit is from outermost zone plate zone + * multi keV range zone plates are possible and are in use @ PSI + + ### 14:00 - Heim: Full field microscopy + * automated tomography @ ~400 proj/30min + * volume zone plates should enable sub 10 nm resolution + * cryo-tomography > aligned dateset + * **evtl. interessant für Dimitri, since the also use some kind of tilt-series**,​ but kinda simpler and with bigger sample sizes + + ### 14:38 - Aoki: Zernike microscopy + * basically just showed images that were obtained with phase contrast methods + + ### 15:08- Sakdinawat: Specialized diffractive optics + * DIC magnetic phase contrast + * spiral zone plates + * cubic zone plates (square deformation of the zone pattern) + * specialized zoneplates can significantly extend the depth of field + + ### 16:03 - Stoll: Magnetic vortex dynamics + ### 16:33 - Fischer: Magn. dynamics with TXM + ### 17:02 - Eimüller: Magnetic TXM + + --- + ## 25. Juli 2008 + ### 08:50 - Cloetens: Hard X-ray Nanotomography + * scanning time is around 3h, completely limited by detector + * combination of projection and scanning x-ray microscopy + * detection on platinum nanoparticle with a diameter of 6 nm + * working on thin slices, so no real tomography, but still chemical imaging on the organelle level + * zoom tomography > sample is much greater than FOV + * setup to scan laminar structures > sample rotates off the surface normal axis + * thermal stability of the system is crucial + + ### 09:06 - Ludwig: Diffraction contrast tomography + * analysis of structural material response on external stimuli + * differential aperture > sub-micrometer spatial resolution + * analysis + * background removal + * pair matching of projections of 180° pairs + * indexing + * back-projection is then possible and then the full sample can be reconstructed (sample has 0.6mm in diameter) + * forward simulation for proof of image acquisition + * strain in sample can be measured and extracted + + ### 09:35 - Brennan: Nano-tomography of a comet + * analysis of comet to determine the original composition of the universe + * collect comet dust with aerogel + * imaging with xradia xrm with 40nm resolution @ 5-14keV + * imaging of the sample without destroying it, nanotomography + * up to now not using diffraction but still possible to study the chemical composition of the sample + + ### 10:32 - Suzuki: Imaging, holography & tomography + * holography with a combination of zoneplate objective and prism interferometer + * phase-contrast ct by imaging holography + + ### 11:03 - Hitchcock: STXM tomography + * combining imaging and spectroscopy + * quantitative chemical maps from differential image from two different energies + * radiation dose is something you have to think about > wet environment > sample moved > cryo-stage is needed + + ### 11:36 - Ade: STXM - from science to applications + * applications towards the more efficient photovoltaic materials + * fabrication of organic solar cells +